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Yoga Sutra

Samadhi Pada

Sutra 1.4
वृत्ति सारूप्यमितरत्र
vr̥tti sārūpyam-itaratra 

Otherwise, the seer takes the form of the modifications of the mind.

vritti = ripples, modifications
sa = similar
rupyam = form
itharatra = otherwise

When the ripples are not settled down, the seer identifies himself with the ripples. Previous Sutra states that when the Chitta is free from making Vritti-s, the seer identifies himself in his own form. When the Chitta is found with Vritti-s, he identifies himself with the Vritti-s. If there is no Vritti in the Chitta, Chitta ceases to exist.


The mind is the current of thoughts. If thoughts are not there, the mind also is not there. It is the state of Nir Vikalpa Samadhi. In such a state, the Purusa finds his own form. Otherwise, he falsely identifies and misconstrues with Vrittis. 


Suppose that a yogi has just come out of Nir Vikalpa Samadhi. Until now, when he was in Samadhi, there was the absence of the mind. Now he opened his eyes and sees the outer world. It happens in his Chitta, "I am seeing". This "I" was not there in Samadhi, Purusa assumes this "I" as conceived by Chitta. The idea of ownership assumed by the mind is also assumed by Purusa. The perception is skewed.  It is a false identification or false perception.  Both the perceptions of the mind and Purusa are identical but are not real.


Because of this false idea of ownership, the Seer (Purusa) experiences the same pains and pleasures experienced by the mind.


Commentary by Sage Vyasha

At other times, conformity to the functions of the mind.

In the waking state, the functions of the Purusa are in line with the mind. How can the perception be one and the same in case of internal organ and Purusa? Perception is cognition. Intelligence is the nature of Purusa not Cognition. The internal organ being the object of perception becomes the Self of Purusa like magnet being affected by its proximity.

Commentary by Swami Vivekananda

At other times (other than that of concentration) the seer is identified with the modifications.

For instance, I am in a state of sorrow; someone blames me; this is a modification, Vritti, and I identify myself with it, and the result is misery.

Commentary by Sri Osho


Except witnessing, in all states, you are identified with the mind. You become one with the flow of thoughts, you become one with the clouds: sometimes with the white cloud, sometimes with the black cloud, sometimes with a rain-filled cloud, sometimes with a vacant, empty cloud, but whatsoever, you become one with the thought, you become one with the cloud, and you miss your purity of the sky, the purity of space. You become clouded, and this clouding happens because you get identified, you become one.

A thought comes. You are hungry, and the thought flashes in the mind. The thought is simply that there is hunger, that the stomach is feeling hunger. Immediately you get identified; you say, ”I am hungry.” The mind was just filled with a thought that hunger is there; you have become identified and you say, ”I am hungry.” This is the identification. Buddha also feels hunger, Patanjali also feels hunger, but Patanjali will never say that, ”I am hungry.” He will say ”The body is hungry”; he will say, ”My stomach is feeling hungry”; he will say, ”There is hunger. I am a witness. I have come to witness this thought, which has been flashed by the belly in the brain, that ’I am hungry.’” The belly is hungry; Patanjali will remain a witness. You become identified, you become one with the thought.



This is the definition: YOGA IS THE CESSATION OF MIND.

When mind ceases, you are established in your witnessing self. In other states, except this, there are identifications. And all identifications constitute the samsara; they are the world. If you are in the identifications, you are in the world, in the misery. If you have transcended the identifications, you are liberated. You have become a siddha, you are in nirvana. You have transcended this world of misery and entered the world of bliss.

And that world is here and now-right now, this very moment! You need not wait for it a single moment even. Just become a witness of the mind, and you have entered. Get identified with the mind, and you have missed. This is the basic definition.

Remember everything, because later on, in other sutras, we will enter details what is to be done, how it is to be done – but always keep in the mind this is the foundation.

One has to achieve a state of no-mind: that is the goal.

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