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The Online Resource of Yoga Philosophy and Practice
प्रमाण विपर्यय विकल्प निद्रा स्मृतयः
pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smr̥tayaḥ
Right knowledge, misconception, fictitious perception, sleep and memory.
pramaana = right knowledge
viparyaya = wrong notion, false idea
vikalpa = imagination, fictitious perception
nidraa = sleep
smritayah = memory
The five kinds of modifications are right knowledge, misconception, fictitious perception, sleep and memory. Pramaana is translated here as right knowledge which gives the nearest meaning. There is no equal word in English. Pramaana is a well established hypothesis which is widely accepted as a fact.
Commentary by Sage Vyasha
Right notion, Misconception, Imagination, Sleep and Memeory
Commentary by Swami Vivekananda
(These are) right knowledge, indiscrimination, verbal delusion, sleep, and memory.
Commentary by Sri Osho
THEY ARE RIGHT KNOWLEDGE, WRONG KNOWLEDGE, IMAGINATION, SLEEP AND MEMORY.
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